Definitions


 

The following definitions are used for reporting crimes in accordance with the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program. The definitions for murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, motor vehicle theft, weapons: carrying, possessing, etc., law violations, drug abuse violations, and liquor law violations are from the “Summary Reporting System (SRS) User Manual” from the FBI's UCR Program. The definitions of fondling, incest, and statutory rape are excerpted from the “National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) User Manual” from the FBI's UCR Program. The definitions of larceny-theft (except motor vehicle theft), simple assault, intimidation, and destruction/damage/vandalism of property are from the “Hate Crime Data Collection Guidelines and Training Manual” from the FBI's UCR Program.

Definitions from the Summary Reporting System (SRS) User Manual From the FBI's UCR Program

Aggravated Assault: An unlawful attack by one person upon another for the purpose of inflicting severe or aggravated bodily injury. This type of assault usually is accompanied by the use of a weapon or by means likely to produce death or great bodily harm. (It is not necessary that injury result from an aggravated assault when a gun, knife, or other weapon is used which could and probably would result in serious personal injury if the crime were successfully completed.)

Arson: Any willful or malicious burning or attempt to burn, with or without intent to defraud, a dwelling house, public building, motor vehicle or aircraft, personal property of another, etc.

Burglary: The unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or a theft. For reporting purposes this definition includes: unlawful entry with intent to commit a larceny or felony; breaking and entering with intent to commit a larceny; housebreaking; safecracking; and all attempts to commit any of the aforementioned.

Criminal Homicide – Manslaughter by Negligence: The killing of another person through gross negligence.

Criminal Homicide - Murder and Non-negligent Manslaughter: The willful (non-negligent) killing of one human being by another. Note: Deaths caused by negligence, attempts to kill, suicides, accidental deaths and justifiable homicides are excluded.

Drug Abuse Violations: The violation of laws prohibiting the production, distribution, and/or use of certain controlled substances and the equipment or devices utilized in their preparation and/or use. The unlawful cultivation, manufacture, distribution, sale, purchase, use, possession, transportation, or importation of any controlled drug or narcotic substance. Arrests for violations of State and local laws, specifically those relating to the unlawful possession, sale, use, growing, manufacturing, and making of narcotic drugs.

Liquor Law Violations: The violation of State or local laws or ordinances prohibiting the manufacture, sale, purchase, transportation, possession, or use of alcoholic beverages, not including driving under the influence and drunkenness.

Motor Vehicle Theft: The theft or attempted theft of a motor vehicle. (Classify as motor vehicle theft all cases where automobiles are taken by persons not having lawful access even though the vehicles are later abandoned—including joyriding.)

Robbery: The taking or attempting to take anything of value from the care, custody, or control of a person or persons by force or threat of force or violence and/or by putting the victim in fear.

Weapons – Carrying, Possesing, Etc.: The violation of laws or ordinances prohibiting the manufacture, sale, purchase, transportation, possession, concealment, or use of firearms, cutting instruments, explosives, incendiary devices, or other deadly weapons.

Definitions from the Hate Crime Data Collection Guidelines and Training Manual From the FBI's UCR Program

Larceny-Theft (Except Motor Vehicle): The unlawful taking, carrying, leading, or riding away of property from the possession or constructive possession of another. Attempted larcenies are included. Embezzlement, confidence games, forgery, worthless checks, etc., are excluded.

Simple Assault: An unlawful physical attack by one person upon another where neither the offender displays a weapon, nor the victim suffers obvious severe or aggravated bodily injury involving apparent broken bones, loss of teeth, possible internal injury, severe laceration, or loss of consciousness.

Intimidation: To unlawfully place another person in reasonable fear of bodily harm through the use of threatening words and/or other conduct, but without displaying a weapon or subjecting the victim to actual physical attack.

Destruction/Damage/Vandalism of Property: To willfully or maliciously destroy, damage, deface, or otherwise injure real or personal property without the consent of the owner or the person having custody or control of it.

Weapon Law Violations: The violation of laws or ordinances dealing with weapon offenses, regulatory in nature, such as: manufacture, sale, or possession of deadly weapons; carrying deadly weapons, concealed or openly; furnishing deadly weapons to minors; aliens possessing deadly weapons; and all attempts to commit any of the aforementioned.

Definitions from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) User Manual from the FBI's UCR Program

Sex Offenses-Forcible

Any sexual act directed against another person, forcibly and/or against that person’s will; or not forcibly or against the person’s will where the victim is incapable of giving consent.

Forcible Rape
The carnal knowledge of a person, forcibly and/or against the person’s will; or not forcibly or against the person’s will where the victim is incapable of giving consent because of his/her temporary or permanent mental or physical incapacity (or because of his/her youth). This offense includes the forcible rape of both males and females.

Forcible Sodomy

Oral or anal sexual intercourse with another person, forcibly and/or against that person’s will; or not forcibly against the person’s will where the victim is incapable of giving consent because of his/her youth or because of his/her temporary or permanent mental or physical incapacity.

Sexual Assault with an Object
The use of an object or instrument to unlawfully penetrate, however slightly, the genital or anal opening of the body of another person, forcibly and/or against that person’s will; or not forcibly or against the person’s will where the victim is incapable of giving consent because of his/her youth or because of his/her temporary or permanent mental or physical incapacity. An object or instrument is anything used by the offender other than the offender’s genitalia.

Forcible Fondling

The touching of the private body parts of another person for the purpose of sexual gratification, without the consent of the victim, including instances where the victim is incapable of giving consent because of his/her age or because of his/her temporary or permanent mental incapacity.

Sex Offenses-Nonforcible

Incidents of unlawful, nonforcible sexual intercourse.

Incest

Sexual intercourse between persons who are related to each other within the degrees wherein marriage is prohibited by law.

Statutory Rape
Nonforcible sexual intercourse with a person who is under the statutory age of consent.

Rape The penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim.

Newly Added Reporting categories: (Campus Sexual Violence Elimination Act (Campus SaVE), March 7, 2013).

Domestic Violence

  • A felony or misdemeanor crime of violence committed—
    • By a current or former spouse or intimate partner of the victim;
    • By a person with whom the victim shares a child in common;
    • By a person who is cohabitating with, or has cohabitated with, the victim as a spouse or intimate partner;
    • By a person similarly situated to a spouse of the victim under the domestic or 35 family violence laws of the jurisdiction in which the crime of violence occurred; or
    • By any other person against an adult or youth victim who is protected from that person's acts under the domestic or family violence laws of the jurisdiction in which the crime of violence occurred.
  • For the purposes of complying with the requirements of § 668.46 and § 668.41, any incident meeting this definition is considered a crime for the purposes of Clery Act reporting.

Dating Violence: Violence committed by a person who is or has been in a social relationship of a romantic or intimate nature with the victim.

  • The existence of such a relationship shall be determined based on the reporting party's statement and with consideration of the length of the relationship, the type of relationship, and the frequency of interaction between the persons involved in the relationship.
  • For the purposes of this definition—
    • Dating violence includes, but is not limited to, sexual or physical abuse or the threat of such abuse.
    • Dating violence does not include acts covered under the definition of domestic violence.
  • For the purposes of complying with the requirements of § 668.46 and § 668.41, any incident meeting this definition is considered a crime for the purposes of Clery Act reporting.

Stalking

  • Engaging in a course of conduct directed at a specific person that would cause a reasonable person to—
    • Fear for the person's safety or the safety of others; or
    • Suffer substantial emotional distress.
  • For the purposes of this definition—
    • Course of conduct means two or more acts, including, but not limited to, acts in which the stalker directly, indirectly, or through third parties, by any action, method, device, or means, follows, monitors, observes, surveys, threatens, or communicates to or about a person, or interferes with a person's property.
    • Reasonable person means a reasonable person under similar circumstances and with similar identities to the victim.

Definitions from the New York State Education Law Article 129-B

Institution: Any college or university chartered by the regents or incorporated by special act of the legislature that maintains a campus in New York.

Title IX Coordinator: The Title IX Coordinator and/or his or her designee or designees.

Code of Conduct: The written policies adopted by an Institution governing student behavior, rights, responsibilities while such student is matriculated in the Institution.

Bystander: A person who observes a crime, impending crime, conflict, potentially violent or violent behavior, or conduct that is in violation of rules or policies of an institution.

Confidentiality: May be offered by an individual who is not required by law to report known incidents of sexual assault or other crimes to institution officials, in a manner consistent with state and federal law, including but not limited to 20 U.S.C. 1092(f) and 20 U.S.C. 1681(a).  Licensed mental health counselors, medical providers and pastoral counselors are examples of institution employees who may offer confidentiality. 

Privacy: May be offered by an individual when such individual is unable to offer confidentiality under the law but shall still not disclose information learned from a reporting individual or bystander to a crime or incident more than necessary to comply with this and other applicable laws, including informing appropriate institution officials.  Institutions may substitute another relevant term having the same meaning, as appropriate to the policies of the institution.

Accused: A person accused of a violation who has not yet entered an institution’s judicial or conduct process.  

Respondent: A person accused of a violation who has entered an institution’s judicial or conduct process.

Reporting Individual: Shall encompass the terms victim, survivor, complainant, witness with victim status, and any other term used by an institution to reference an individual who brings forth a report of a violation.

The following definition is per the New York State Penal Code Article 130

Lack of Consent

  • Whether or not specifically stated, it is an element of every offense defined in this article that the sexual act was committed without consent of the victim. (Eff.11/1/03,Ch.264.L.2003)
  • Lack of consent results from:
    • Forcible compulsion; or
    • Incapacity to consent; or
    • Where the offense charged is sexual abuse of forcible touching, any circumstances, in addition to forcible compulsion or incapacity to consent, in which the victim does not expressly or impliedly acquiesce in the actor’s conduct; or(Eff.11/1/03,Ch.264.L.2003)
    • Where the offense charged is rape in the third degree as defined in subdivision three of section 130.25, or criminal sexual act in the third degree as defined in subdivision three of section 130.40, in addition to forcible compulsion, circumstances under which, at the time of the act of intercourse or deviate sexual intercourse, the victim clearly expressed that he or she did not consent to engage in such act, and a reasonable person in the actor’s situation would have understood such person’s words and acts as an expression of lack of consent to such act under all the circumstances.(Eff.11/1/03,Ch.264.L.2003)
  • A person is deemed incapable of consent when he or she is:
    • less than seventeen years old; or
    • mentally disabled; or
    • mentally incapacitated; or
    • physically helpless; or
    • committed to the care and custody of the state department of correctional services or a hospital, as such term is defined in subdivision two of section four hundred of the correction law, and the actor is an employee, not married to such person, who knows or reasonably should know that such person is committed to the care and custody of such department or hospital. For purposes of this paragraph, “employee” means (i) an employee of the state department of correctional services who performs professional duties in a state correctional facility consisting of providing custody, medical or mental health services, counseling services, educational programs, or vocational training for inmates; (ii) an employee of the division of parole who performs professional duties in a state correctional facility and who provides institutional parole services pursuant to section two hundred fifty-nine-e of the executive law; or (iii) an employee of the office of mental health who performs professional duties in a state correctional facility or hospital, as such term is defined in subdivision two of section four hundred of the correction law, consisting of providing custody, or medical or mental health services for such inmates; or
    • committed to the care and custody of a local correctional facility, as such term is defined in subdivision two of section forty of the correction law, and the actor is an employee, not married to such person, who knows or reasonably should know that such person is committed to the care and custody of such facility. For purposes of this paragraph, “employee” means an employee of the local correctional facility where the person is committed who performs professional duties consisting of providing custody, medical or mental health services, counseling services, educational services, or vocational training for inmates; or
    • committed to or placed with the office of children and family services and in residential care, and the actor is an employee, not married to such person, who knows or reasonably should know that such person is committed to or placed with such office of children and family services and in residential care. For purposes of this paragraph, “employee” means an employee of the office of children and family services or of a residential facility who performs duties consisting of providing custody, medical or mental health services, counseling services, educational services, or vocational training for persons committed to or placed with the office of children and family services and in residential care; or
    • a client or patient and the actor is a health care provider or mental health care provider charged with rape in the third degree as defined in section 130.25, criminal sexual act in the third degree as defined in section 130.40, aggravated sexual abuse in the fourth degree as defined in section 130.65-a, or sexual abuse in the third degree as defined in section 130.55, and the act of sexual conduct occurs during a treatment session, consultation, interview, or examination.(Eff.11/1/03,Ch.264,L.2003)

Respondent: A person accused of a violation who has entered an Institution’s judicial or conduct process.

Accused: A person accused of a violation who has not yet entered an Institution’s judicial or conduct process.

Reporting Individual: Encompasses the terms victim, survivor, complainant, claimant, witness with victim status, and any other term used by an institution to reference an individual who brings forth a report of a violation.

Sexual activity: Has the same meaning as “sexual act” and “sexual assault” as provided in 18 U.S.C. 2246(2) and 18 U.S.C. 2246(3)

 

Nyack College maintains a historic Christian ethic that views any sexual activity outside of marriage between a man and a woman as inappropriate.  While the following content is not an endorsement of sexual activity apart from marriage, Nyack recognizes its responsibility to inform students of the definitions of consensual and non-consensual acts.

Higher Education Act 129-B Verbatim Language for Definition of “Affirmative Consent”
“Affirmative consent is a knowing, voluntary, and mutual decision among all participants to engage in sexual activity.  Consent can be given by words or actions, as long as those words or actions create clear permission regarding willingness to engage in the sexual activity.  Silence or lack of resistance, in and of itself, does not demonstrate consent. The definition of consent does not vary based upon a participant’s sex, sexual orientation, gender identity or gender expression.”

Additional Mandatory Language that May be Worded as Appropriate for each Institution

  • Consent to any sexual act or prior consensual activity between or with any party does not necessarily constitute consent to any other sexual act.
  • Consent is required regardless of whether the person initiating the act is under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol.
  • Consent may be initially given but withdrawn at any time.
  • Consent cannot be given when a person is incapacitated, which occurs when an individual lacks the ability to knowingly choose to participate in sexual activity. Incapacitation may be caused by a lack of consciousness or being asleep, being involuntarily restrained, or if an individual otherwise cannot consent.  Depending on the degree of intoxication, someone under the influence of alcohol, drugs, or other intoxicants may be incapacitated and therefore unable to consent.
  • Consent cannot be given when it is the result of any coercion, intimidation, force, or threat of harm.
  • When consent is withdrawn or cannot be given, sexual activity must stop.

Definitions from the Clery Act

Business Day: Monday through Friday, excluding any day when the institution is closed.

Bystander Intervention: Safe and positive options that may be carried out by an individual or individuals to prevent harm or intervene when there is a risk of dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

Campus

  • Any building or property owned or controlled by an institution within the same reasonably contiguous geographic area and used by the institution in direct support of, or in a manner related to, the institution's educational purposes, including residence halls; and
  • Any building or property that is within or reasonably contiguous to the area identified in paragraph (i) of this definition, that is owned by the institution but controlled by another person, is frequently used by students, and supports institutional purposes (such as a food or other retail vendor).

Campus Security Authority

  • A campus police department or a campus security department of an institution.
  • Any individual or individuals who have responsibility for campus security but who do not constitute a campus police department or a campus security department under paragraph (i) of this definition, such as an individual who is responsible for monitoring entrance into institutional property.
  • Any individual or organization specified in an institution's statement of campus security policy as an individual or organization to which students and employees should report criminal offenses.
  • An official of an institution who has significant responsibility for student and campus activities, including, but not limited to, student housing, student discipline, and campus judicial proceedings. If such an official is a pastoral or professional counselor as defined below, the official is not considered a campus security authority when acting as a pastoral or professional counselor.

Clery Geography

  • For the purposes of collecting statistics on the crimes listed in paragraph (c) of § 668.46 for submission to the Department and inclusion in an institution's annual security report, Clery geography includes—
    • Buildings and property that are part of the institution's campus;
    • The institution's non-campus buildings and property; and
    • Public property within or immediately adjacent to and accessible from the campus.
  • For the purposes of maintaining the crime log required in paragraph (f) of § 668.46, Clery geography includes, in addition to the locations in paragraph (i) of this definition, areas within the patrol jurisdiction of the campus police or the campus security department.

 

Federal Bureau of Investigation's (FBI) Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program: A nationwide, cooperative statistical effort in which city, university and college, county, State, Tribal, and federal law enforcement agencies voluntarily report data on crimes brought to their attention. The UCR program also serves as the basis for the definitions of crimes in Appendix A to this subpart and the requirements for classifying crimes in this subpart.

Hate Crime: A crime reported to local police agencies or to a campus security authority that manifests evidence that the victim was intentionally selected because of the perpetrator's bias against the victim. For the purposes of this section, the categories of bias include the victim's actual or perceived race, religion, gender, gender identity, sexual orientation, ethnicity, national origin, and disability.

Race:  A preformed negative attitude toward a group of persons who possess common physical characteristics (e.g. color skin, eyes, and/or hair; facial features, etc.) genetically transmitted by descent and heredity which distinguish them as a distinct division of humankind.

Gender:  A preformed negative opinion or attitude toward a group of persons because those persons are male or female.

Religion:  A preformed negative opinion or attitude toward a group of persons who share the same religious beliefs regarding the origin and purpose of the universe and the existence or nonexistence of a supreme being (e.g., Catholics, Jews, Protestants, atheists).

Sexual Orientation:  A preformed negative opinion or attitude toward a group of persons based on their sexual attraction toward, and responsiveness to, members of their own sex or members of the opposite sex (e.g., gays, lesbians, heterosexuals).

Ethnicity/National Origin:  A preformed negative opinion or attitude toward a group of persons of the same race or national origin who share common or similar traits, languages, customs, and traditions (e.g., Arabs, Hispanics).

Disability: A preformed negative opinion or attitude toward a group of persons based on their physical or mental impairments/challenges, whether such disability is temporary or permanent, congenital or acquired by heredity, accident, injury, advanced age or illness.

Gender Identity:  A preformed negative opinion or attitude toward a group of persons based on their gender identity and biological sex not being congruent; the individuals may identify as transsexual or as another category.

Hierarchy Rule:  A requirement in the FBI's UCR program that, for purposes of reporting crimes in that system, when more than one criminal offense was committed during a single incident, only the most serious offense be counted.

Non-campus Building or Property:

  • Any building or property owned or controlled by a student organization that is officially recognized by the institution; or
  • Any building or property owned or controlled by an institution that is used in direct support of, or in relation to, the institution's educational purposes, is frequently used by students, and is not within the same reasonably contiguous geographic area of the institution.

Pastoral Counselor: A person who is associated with a religious order or denomination, is recognized by that religious order or denomination as someone who provides confidential counseling, and is functioning within the scope of that recognition as a pastoral counselor.

Professional Counselor: A person whose official responsibilities include providing mental health counseling to members of the institution's community and who is functioning within the scope of the counselor's license or certification.

Programs to Prevent Dating Violence, Domestic Violence, Sexual Assault, and Stalking

  • Comprehensive, intentional, and integrated programming, initiatives, strategies, and campaigns intended to end dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking that—
    • Are culturally relevant, inclusive of diverse communities and identities, sustainable, responsive to community needs, and informed by research or assessed for value, effectiveness, or outcome; and
    • Consider environmental risk and protective factors as they occur on the individual, relationship, institutional, community, and societal levels.
  • Programs to prevent dating violence, domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking include both primary prevention and awareness programs directed at incoming students and new employees and ongoing prevention and awareness campaigns directed at students and employees, as defined in paragraph (j)(2) of § 668.46.

Public Property: All public property, including thoroughfares, streets, sidewalks, and parking facilities, that is within the campus, or immediately adjacent to and accessible from the campus.

  • The Nyack College Crime statistics do not include crimes that occur in privately owned homes or businesses within or adjacent to the campus boundaries.

Referred for Campus Disciplinary Action: The referral of any person to any campus official who initiates a disciplinary action of which a record is kept and which may result in the imposition of a sanction.

Sexual Assault: An offense that meets the definition of rape, fondling, incest, or statutory rape as used in the FBI's UCR program and included in Appendix A of Subpart D of § 668.

  • Substantial emotional distress means significant mental suffering or anguish that may, but does not necessarily, require medical or other professional treatment or counseling.
  • For the purposes of complying with the requirements of this section and section 668.41, any incident meeting this definition is considered a crime for the purposes of Clery Act reporting.

Test: Regularly scheduled drills, exercises, and appropriate follow-through activities, designed for assessment and evaluation of emergency plans and capabilities.